Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on Mechanization of Field Experiments (IAMFE/FRANCE ’96)

Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on Mechanization of Field Experiments (IAMFE/FRANCE ’96)

Paris Versailles, France – July 8 – 12, 1996

EDITORS:

Torbjom Leuchovius
Egil 0yjord
Jean-Francois Billot

ORGANIZERS: Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA)
in Cooperation with
Association Francaise pour la Mécanisation en Expérimentation Agricole (AFMEX – The French Branch or IAMFE)
The International Association on Mechanization or Field Experiments (IAMFE)

All rights reserved. With the exception of fair copying, no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form without written permission of IAMFE.

The organizers do not accept responsibility for the statements made or the opinions expressed by the authors.

ELECTROSTATIC SPRAYING RESEARCH AT APPLE PLANTATIONS

Dr. Imre Kalmar – Dr. Uszlò Gulyas – Dr. JòzsefKrizsan – Dr. Ede Petrò College of Mechanical Engineering of Godollo University for Agricultural Sciences H-5400 Mezotur, Petofi tér I., Hungary

Summary

Nowadays, the uses of chemical saving, environment friendly and plant protecting methods are spreading wide in the intensive fruit-gardens. In Hungary, we have tested the application of the MARTIGNANI-KWH system electrostatic drop-tilling spray machine at some apple plantations.

In summary, we found the above-mentioned machine applicable in traditional fruit gardens. Beside the optimum research conditions, the according to figure savings and advantages mentioned by the manufacturer can be probably reached, but there are needs for further testing.

Résumé

De nos jours – dans les vergers intensifs – de plus en plus sont utilisés des procédés antiparasitaires économes du produit chimique, ménagers l’environnement. On a examiné mème dans les plantations de pommes plantées traditionnellement et rarement l’adaptation du pulvérisateur de charge électrostatique des gouttes “MARTIGNANI” système KWH.

On peut constater: la machine éxaminante peut étre utilisée dans les vergers plantés traditionnellement. Dans les conditions d’expérience optimum les économies et des avantages donnés par fabricant peuvent ètre obtenus probablement, mais pour les preuves des mesures supplémentaires sont nécessaires.

Introduction

Today, almost everybody has come to the conclusions that the world’s food-products need cannot be produced without chemical plant protection, even in the near future.

In order to reach the desired biological effect with the plant protecting methods, the spray fluid should be applied onto the plants:

– in due season
– in correct quantity
– at the right place, and
– in appropriate distribution

Spraying is also a biological, chemical, technical and technological problem. The representatives of biological and chemical sciences have been coming up with newer and newer environment sparing chemicals in the market, while there have not been sensational new solutions in the tool-system of getting the fluid to the plants, and in technology for the past few years. A spraying machine renders more than ten times of its value in the spraying process, so the ‘chemical-economical’ sprayers become more valuable.

In Hungary there are a lot of spraying machines, amongst which are the electrostatic drop-fluid spraying machines. The main advantage of this method is that the electrostatic fluid reaches the exact surface it is directed to. This is why a small quantity of chemicals is enough and the expense reduce and environment sparing effect of this is significant. The uses are hindered by the complicated technical solutions, the conditions of operation and maintenance demanding more care, and by the relatively high costs of machines as well. The applied technical solutionsconstructed by the MAR TIGNANI high electrostatic drop-fluid spraying machines means a lot of saving at several areas for the farmers, including the significant chemicals saving.

The manufacturer enlists the following saving and advantages in its catalogue:

– chemical savings: up to 35%

– time and labour needs: 65% favourable
– water savings: 90%
– fuel savings: 40% approx,
– environment: sparing method
– simple machine design
– easy setting
– high level safety of operations
– minimum maintenance need.

The results of examination by several global research institutes and conference materials, as well as the other not mentioned publications, also show the advantages of spraying with this machine, even if not all of the mentioned ones in the brochures.

The evaluation data by the MARTIGNANI company con also serve as references. Out of the nearly 10,000 units of its Low Volume spraying machines sold in ITALY and overseas , more than 2000 pieces are Electrostatic and up till now the testing results have shown that beside the decrease in chemicals utilization economical spraying can be obtained, too.

MARTIGNANI machines have been applied in intensive fruit gardens up till now. Before the selling of these machines in Hungary, we examined them in rare standing fruit-plantations.

MEASUREMENT SETUP

In a given economy and planting culture “close-fitting” machines are used in intensive vineyards and fruit gardens. The aim of our testing was to determine whether the MARTIGNANI-kwh spraying machines are applicable in the domestic fruit gardens and if they have advantages compared to the traditional axial-ventilator machines.

Place of examination: Research Station for Fruit Growing. Ujfehértò.
Time of examination: October 11, 1994.
Tested area: 5 m lane-distance. 4 In plant distance. 3,5 m high, 3 In crowl1-diameter slim apple-plantation.
Indicating material: Lumogén (BASF).
Research process: with given spraying parameters with traditional and electrostatic drop fluid spraying machines applied in the spraying of One-One lane of the fruit-garden, taking of samples, laboratory evaluation.

Note: The parameters of spraying and machine setting in the case of the electrostatic and traditional machines were determined by the representatives of the commercial firms.

Fig. I shows the sampling places in the leafy crown and fig. 2 the evaluation of the surface of the examined leafs.

Electrostatic Spraying Research
Electrostatic Spraying Research

Figure I. The position of sampling places in the leafy crown. Sampling: 3 levels, 4 segments, 50-50 pieces of leaves .

Figure 2. The surface of the examined leaf

Evaluation: front and back side of right and left
side of every leaf. 3-3 visible – field per average

SUMMARY OF THE TESTING RESUL TS

Figures 3 and 4 shows the formation of coverage and unevenness for a traditional and the electrostatic spraying machines respectively.

Unevenness
Electrostatic Spraying Research

A

B

C

Electrostatic Spraying Research

front side

back side

Min. 30%

20 40

Max. 5O %

60 80 100 120 140 CV%

Diagram 3. Formation of coverage and unevenness for the traditional spraying machine.

Work parameters: – doses 1200 dm3/ha – advancing speed: 6,2 km/h -Spray Liquid pressure: 30 bar

Unevenness

A

B

C

front side

back side

Min.30 %

20 40

Max.50 %

60 80 100

CV%

Diagram 4. Formation 01 coverage and unevenness for the electrostatic drop-fluid spraying machine.

Work parameters: -doses 400 dm3/ha -advancing speed: 4.1 km/h – spray liquid pressure: 1.5 bar

CONCLUSIONS

MARTIGNANI electrostatic drop-fluid machines can be used in traditional fruit gardens.

Both the coverage and unevenness by the electrostatic spraying are more favourable than the application of the traditional machines.

The coverage conditions of the front and back side of leaves in the case of the electrostatic drop-fluid can be considered excellent.

The stated advantages by the manufacturer of the electrostatic machine on the basis of the tests can be realized. Even in the case of various research conditions, there will not be any difference from the advantages stated in the brochure.

In summary, we recommend the application of MARTIGNANI-kwh electrostatic drop-fluid spraying machines in the traditional fruit gardens. Optimum research conditions also support the savings and advantages mentioned by the manufacturer.